A lesser-known provision in the Medicare Program allows payment for “reasonable and necessary” items or services provided through clinical trials. At the same time, even for traditional reimbursement, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) increasingly is demanding evidence of effectiveness in the Medicare population, rather than simply in the general population, to support a coverage decision. The federal government has sought, often without much success, to increase participation by Medicare recipients in clinical trials, because Medicare recipients traditionally have been underrepresented in research populations–meaning the very evidence CMS seeks for traditional reimbursement often does not exist. Developments regarding these reimbursement policies by CMS are the subject of an informative and timely article for the FDLI UPDATE by Reed Smith attorney Kathleen McGuan.